Water quality monitoring is an essential part of public health, and currently, there are many different ways to conduct it. Whether it’s to characterize a watershed or to respond to emergencies, monitoring can help us know what’s going on in our water. Some of the most common methods include collecting water samples at regular or selected sites, while others are completely automated and included in a water quality monitoring system. The main question here for many utility institutions and private users is how smart water monitoring systems are better than traditional metering methods.
IMPORTANCE OF WATER MONITORING
Water pollution is one of the major threats to our ecosystems, and it can lead to a variety of illnesses. As a result, it is important to detect pollution early to prevent critical situations, where comes the importance of monitoring the water quality. Therefore, IoT-based systems for monitoring water quality are becoming more important. With the help of sensors, IoT-based systems can help us ensure the purity of water for humans and ecosystems.
Current water quality monitoring systems can use wireless sensor networks. This technology allows users to monitor the pH levels of water in real time. They can then send this data to a centralized control center. The data can also be used to forecast water quality. For example, an abnormal pH level in a water body can be an indication of water contamination. Additionally, these sensors can be used for scheduled preventive maintenance checks.
The ability to determine water quality is essential to protect people and the agricultural sphere. If water is contaminated, it can cause disease in people, affect the health of animals and plants, and cause real damage. Every year, millions of people die from water-borne diseases. These diseases are often caused by a combination of factors such as population growth, agricultural magnification, and increased migration. This means that we need to constantly monitor water quality to prevent these illnesses from spreading throughout our communities.
WHAT IS NEEDED TO BE MONITORED?
Water quality parameters are really important to consider because water resources are crucial for our living activities. Real-time water quality monitoring gives the necessary insight to take action immediately if any problems occur. There are several important water parameters to consider when monitoring water conditions and we are going to shortly touch base on each of them for your better understanding.
Salinity is a major concern for water quality and can be affected by climate change, changes in land use, or weathering of rocks. It builds up in groundwater and soils and can reach high levels. When the level of salinity is high, it can affect water supplies, PH values, and ecosystems. Monitoring salinity is crucial for aquaculture, livestock, and the wastewater industry. Even small changes in salinity can cause plant and animal mortality, leading to animal waste.
Monitoring spatial and temporal variations in bacteria levels is important for public health. Contaminated water can cause a wide range of illnesses, including diarrhea, dysentery, and gastrointestinal problems. However, there are significant limitations to current methods for measuring bacteria. First of all, data on pathogen concentrations in untreated water are scant. Second, antibody-based methods are less sensitive. Although they can be used to detect bacteria in as little as 20 minutes, they lack the sensitivity to measure bacteria near standards. Third, these methods do not assess the viability of the indicator organisms. Current systems monitor water quality in more generalized ways and take quite a lot of time, which calls for a search for a more efficient system.
DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVELS
There are many reasons why dissolved oxygen levels are important for monitoring water quality. It is a gas that fits in the spaces between the molecules of water. Fish need oxygen to survive and oxygen-depleted water is not good for plants or animals. Because fish cannot get oxygen from the air directly, dissolved oxygen in water is essential to them.
While dissolved oxygen levels naturally vary in water, human activity can cause significant changes in these levels. The effects of wastewater treatment facilities and fish waste nitrogen load runoff can reduce the oxygen levels in aquatic bodies. Low oxygen levels in water can cause fish mortality and lower the chances of reproduction.